ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN FOR 2015-2025 YEARS

APPROVED

Decree № 986 of the President of

the Republic of Kazakhstan,

December 26, 2014

ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY

OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN FOR 2015-2025

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Analysis of the current situation/Executive summary
2.1. Positive trends in the field of anti-corruption
2.2. Problems to be resolved
2.3. The main factors contributing to corrupt practices
3. Aim and objectives
3.1. Aim and target indicators
3.2. Objectives
4. Key areas, main approaches and priority measures
4.1. Anti-corruption in the Civil Service
4.2. Introduction of the Institute of public control
4.3. Anti-corruption in quasi-public and private sector
4.4. Prevention of corruption in Law Enforcement and Judicial Authorities
4.5. Formation of anti-corruption culture awareness
4.6. Development of international cooperation in corruption control
5. Monitoring and evaluation of the Strategy implementation

  1. Introduction

“The Strategy ‘Kazakhstan 2050’: New political course of the established state” raises corruption to the level of a direct threat to the national security and it directs the State and society to unite in a joint effort to fight against this negative trend.

This is the main strategic document of our country that reflects the position of Kazakhstan on this important issue, which supports the anti-corruption policy of the state for the future.

It is commonly known that corruption leads to a decrease in the efficiency of public administration and the country’s investment attractiveness, and it restricts progressive social and economic development.

Since the early days of independence Kazakhstan purposefully and step-by-step has been working on creating effective anti-corruption institutions and mechanisms that meet international standards.

Our country has modern anti-corruption legislation, which is based on the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On Combating Corruption» and the Law «On Civil Service». A number of policy documents are being implemented. A special authorized body has been established. It fulfils functions in the Civil Service and anti-corruption field in an integrated manner. International cooperation in anti-corruption activities is also actively being pursued.

The structure of the Civil Service is formed on the principles of meritocracy, in which capable and professionally trained staff, regardless of their social origin and property status, holds senior positions. Also, there is a clear distinction and definition of the functions and authorities of each public body and the state officials.

Comprehensive measures for the development of the public services and IT-based management of activities of the state apparatus have been taken in order to reduce direct contact of civil servants with citizens and minimize an environment for corruption.

The measures taken for the enhancement of the living standards of citizens, the growth of the national economy, the improvement of business environment, the increase of public legal literacy and social activity and the introduction of e-government, that allowed Kazakhstan to join the 50 most competitive

countries of the world, create preconditions for the formation of the culture of lawfulness and generally accepted anti-corruption behaviour models.

However, to achieve strategic goals of the onward growth of economy, the improvement of welfare of the people and bringing to life the ambitious task of entering the list of the thirty most competitive countries in the world, new systemic measures are required which are based on the modernization of the state’s anti-corruption policy and the increase of the civil society institutions’ role in its implementation. These would enormously minimize corruption.

In this respect, at this stage, there is a need for a new state policy document that outlines the country’s Anti-Corruption Strategy (hereinafter - Strategy or Anti-Corruption Strategy).

The key role in such a document should be given to comprehensive measures of prevention that are able to radically reduce the level of corruption, to eradicate the causes and conditions that give rise to it in various spheres of the life of the State and society. It means that an emphasis should be directed towards the elimination of corruption preconditions, but not a fight against its consequences.

The competitive growth of the national economy also implies the priority of measures for eliminating the administrative barriers in business development and protecting effectively the rights and legitimate interests of domestic and foreign entrepreneurs operating in Kazakhstan from any corruption-related practices.

In general, such a Strategy should encompass the main areas of the life of the State and society, consider the development and implementation of a set of versatile and consistent anti-corruption measures, thus ensure maximum reduction of corruption at all levels of government as well as in the private sector. The Strategy should also assist in forming an intolerant attitude of Kazakhstani citizens to this social evil.

At the same time, the basic directions determined by the Strategy cannot be applied once and forever. They should be adjusted on an on-going basis as certain activities have been implemented and considering the results of an in-depth analysis of corruption, its causes, motivational factors for corrupt behavior and a robust and objective assessment of the situation in the anti-corruption field.

  1. Analysis of the current situation/ Executive Summary
  • Positive trends in the field of anti-corruption

In previous stages of its development, Kazakhstan has achieved widely recognised results and some positive trends have been outlined in combating corruption. Strengthening and further development of these achievements will ensure successful implementation of the anti-corruption Strategy at the current stage of the country’s development.

Kazakhstan was one of the first among the CIS countries to adopt the Law "On Combating Corruption", which has defined the goals, objectives, main principles and mechanisms of combating this negative phenomenon.

Since 2001, a range of government programmes have been implemented aimed at fighting corruption. Some specific measures on elimination and prevention of the causes and conditions for the existence of corruption have been taken within the frameworks of those programmes.

Law "On Civil Service" which has been in force since 1999 and the Code of Civil Servants which was approved in 2005 by the President of the State provided the basis for the formation of a professional bureaucratic apparatus in Kazakhstan based on the principles of accountability, transparency and meritocracy.

A special state body that combines regulatory and law enforcement functions in the realm of the Civil Service and anti-corruption has been established. This body is intended not only to regulate the civil service and monitor ethical purity of the Civil Service and the state apparatus but also it is endued with the functions of implementing measures to prevent corruption, and to prosecute people engaged in corruption.

In this respect, preventive activities are considered to be a priority for the newly created body.

The principle of inevitability of punishment is being successfully implemented. Officials who are found to be engaged in acts of corruption bear the responsibility to the fullest extent of the law regardless of their position and rank.

Criminal law provides the strictest punishment for officials who have committed corruption-related crimes.

The necessity for harsh liability in the case of corruption offenses is stipulated in the Concept of Legal Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010 -2020.

This kind of compelling approach is implemented through the new Criminal Code. Thus, persons who have committed crimes of corruption shall not be subject to a statute of limitations; shall not be able to receive a suspended

sentence, and shall be subjected to a lifetime ban on the right to hold a public office position.

Anti-corruption legislation is amended by regulations aimed at confiscation of the property acquired by criminal means and a personal

responsibility of the state bodies’ heads for preventing corruption. An important notion as a "conflict of interests" is enshrined in the legislation as well.

At the same time, along with strengthening of responsibilities of civil servants their social guarantees are being improved as well.

Regular and gradual increase of the civil servants’ salaries is designed to

improve their social well-being and to set up the conditions for them to carry out their duties in a fair and equitable manner.

The measures that are aimed at increasing the level of trust to law enforcement agencies and the formation of the personnel which is characterized by impeccable behaviour and a high level of competence are considered by the state programme (for the period up to 2020) of further modernising of the law enforcement system and by the Concept of personnel policy in law enforcement agencies.

Special attention is paid to improving trust towards the judicial system and to strengthening its role in protecting the rights and legitimate interests of citizens.

Measures have been taken to improve the mechanisms of forming the corps of judges, the development of e-justice and the enhancement of judicial

system’s transparency and accessibility.

Access to information is widely expanded through improving e-government and online resources of public and private structures.

The conditions have been created for citizens to freely inform about the corruption, including telephone hotlines and websites of government agencies.

For the purpose of enhancing the investment attractiveness of the country and increasing its competitiveness administrative barriers that are hindering business activity and provision of high-quality and fast public services to citizens are being eradicated.

After the adoption of the Law "On Public Services" and the Law "On Permissions and Notifications" the environment for improving the quality of public services was established; and the number of permits and licensed activities was dramatically reduced.

The evaluation of effectiveness and external quality assurance system of public services has been formed.

Implementation of the system resulted in a yearly decline in the number of violations of public services’ provision terms (8.7 times, in 2013, compared with 2012) and complaints about the public service provision quality (by 25%). There was also an increase of the share of automated services (more than twice) and services provided through one-stop service centres (by 51%).

The level of public procurement automation has been increasing, which contributes to a more competitive environment, transparent and efficient budget implementation.

There have been created favourable conditions for doing business and securing employment in the non-state sector of the economy.

In general, implementation of the above mentioned measures has allowed Kazakhstan to occupy one of the leading positions in terms of taking anti-corruption measures in the Central Asian region as well as among the CIS countries.

2.2. Problems to be resolved

Corruption as a complex, historically changeable, negative social phenomenon, as it is known, has emerged in the early stages of development of human civilization.

The problem of corruption exists in all countries restricting their social and economic progress. It differs only in its specific practices and scope.

Despite the lack of a universal and comprehensive definition for the act of corruption, it primarily concerns an abuse of power by public officials or their official position for their personal gain. Bribing Officials or the use of official powers for private gain is the most common type of corruption.

The complexity of developing effective anti-corruption measures is also due to the peculiarities for each individual state and the difficulties that are related to corruption’s variable characteristics.

In the course of determining causes, conditions and consequences of corruption, such factors as local mentality, national and religious backgrounds, and the level of legal culture should be taken into account.

Moreover, the fundamental terms for an effective and systematic fight against corruption shall be deemed to have a presence of accountability of state authorities to the society; independence and fairness of justice; laws that are clearly stated and simple to administer, the existence of meritocracy in state

personnel policy; transparency of government procedures and a degree of intolerance for corruption in society as well.

In the context of modernization of the economy and large-scale social transformations in Kazakhstan the need for a coherent anti-corruption strategy is becoming increasingly obvious which is closely aligned with the current socio-economic policies of the state, and takes into account culture and ethics of our society and international trends in the fight against this social evil.

The Strategy will form the basis for new mechanisms and tools in increasing the efficiency of the state policy for combating corruption.

In addition to a purely judicial component, an important part goes to selection of scientifically proven forms and methods of public administration in anti-corruption policy, allocation and use of public funds and on this basis the elimination of the corruption causes and conditions.

In a system of combating corruption, identifying and minimising corruption risks, conditions and reasons related to its emergence must be fundamental elements.

Assessment of corruption risks and the level of their prevalence in various fields and sectors help identify gaps in the state administration, including legal provisions of anti-corruption activities. It will also assist in defining problems encountered in mechanisms of state legal regulation and in development of measures aimed at improving the law enforcement practices within the process of anti-corruption activities.

Lack of transparency in decision-making related to the most important issues of public life, absence of adequate public control and accounting of public opinion concerning activities of the state apparatus lead to excessive bureaucracy, administrative barriers and abuse of power which together form the negative factors contributing to the growth of corruption.

In spite of continuous qualitative renewal of the national legislation, the issue of law enforcement remains unresolved and it is the main problem of current institutional arrangements.

Using the whole set of means for corruption prevention still remains

acute.

Current legislation and traditional Kazakhstani law settings have untapped potential for prevention of corruption, the possibility of its full-scale implementation should be taken into account whilst considering introduction of foreign models and practices in this area.

There is a deficiency in systematic and preventive work as well.

In this context, the priority for the authorized body responsible for anti-corruption should be adoption of preventive measures aimed at identifying and eliminating the causes and conditions of corruption rather than criminal prosecution.

In this case, attention should be focused on activities of local authorities due to expansion of their powers and responsibilities in the regions, as they are the entities, which provide public services for satisfaction of daily needs and demands of citizens.

In general, a balance in the activities of the authorized body should be maintained between its law enforcement and regulatory functions.

Conflict of interest is one of the major reasons contributing to corruption in the public sector, while public servants perform their state mandated functions. Detailed analysis of the implementation mechanisms of government functions including delivery of public services will allow identifying and eliminating the causes enabling the spread of corruption.

Up to now, a very little attention has been paid to the improvement of the legal culture of citizens and legal education, particularly in the sectors and regulations of current laws most demanded for the daily life of citizens.

Anti-corruption propaganda is largely limited to single actions and campaigns and formal statements in mass media. Internet is underutilized for this purpose.

Existing information field is not always conducive to consolidating a zero tolerance for corruption by the society.

The level and quality of sociological research on problems of corruption and effectiveness of state anti-corruption measures leaves much to be desired.

At the legislative level violation of norms and rules of professional ethics has not yet been delineated from corruption offenses, which distorts the real picture of a corruption situation. It precludes the State from focussing its efforts on important directions of combating corruption and it leads to an unreasonable increase of the country’s corruption rating.

At the same time, there is no clear distinction between the levels of corruption actions and respective penalties applied for them.

It is necessary to finally decide on the approaches for combating corruption in the private sector as well.

State intervention into the business activities should be based on a clear understanding of the scope of corruption and the number of persons covered by its definition. There should be no administrative barriers hindering business development and the provision of a favourable investment climate in the

country. In general, there should be a reduction of state participation in entrepreneurial activities.

Steps undertaken by independent Kazakhstan to further integration into the world arena oblige our country to take into account certain international standards adopted on anti-corruption issues.

However, such standards should be introduced not only on the basis of international partners’ recommendations. International experience should be subject to scrutiny and detailed analysis for compliance with the provisions of Constitution of Kazakhstan, the current legislation and legal practice and take into account the peculiarities that are traditional and inherent in our country in the formulation and functioning of legal mechanisms and institutions to combat corruption.

2.3. The main factors that contribute to corruption practices

For the purpose of forming an effective anti-corruption system, it is first necessary to identify the main factors that contribute to its emergence in the modern context.

For now the most central of them are, first of all, the imperfection of sectoral laws, the regulations of which creates the conditions for corruption.

For citizens who do not understand the intricacies of jurisprudence it is difficult to correctly understand and properly interpret the provisions of such laws in practice.

Second, there is a lack of transparency in public and corporate governance. The decision-making process still remains to be one of the most restricted ones, including the decisions affecting the rights and legitimate interests of citizens.

Third, there are corruption risks related with the direct contact of officials with the public while delivering public services.

Fourth, there is still a low level of legal culture of the public including the public sector employees themselves that allows corrupt employees to use it for their personal gain, and/or illegal purposes.

Fifth, the absence of comprehensive and targeted outreach activities to forge an anti-corruption behaviour model for citizens and a zero tolerance attitude to corruption.

Sixth, inadequate monetary remuneration for certain categories of civil servants and social security in the Civil Service.

  1. Aim and objectives

3.1. Aim and target indicators

The aim of this Strategy is to improve the efficiency of the state anti-corruption policy, to involve community in an anti-corruption movement by creating an environment of zero tolerance for any corruption practices and to drastically reduce the level of corruption in Kazakhstan.

Target indicators used in this Strategy:

  • quality of public services;
  • public trust in government institutions;
  • level of the public’s legal culture;
  • the increase of the country’s international credibility in the International Community and improvement of Kazakhstan’s rank in relevant international ratings, including in the Corruption

Perception Index of “Transparency International”.

3.2. Objectives of the Strategy:

  • combating corruption in the Civil Service;
  • introduction of a public control institute;
  • combating corruption in quasi-public and private sectors;
  • prevention of corruption in the Courts and law enforcement agencies;
  • creating an anti-corruption culture;
  • international cooperation development on anti-corruption issues.

The aim and objectives of the Anti-Corruption Strategy aspire to achieve the goals of the Strategy "Kazakhstan - 2050", take into consideration the "Nur Otan" Party’s anti-corruption programme for 2015-2025; and suggestions and opinions of other public associations as well.

  1. Key areas, main approaches and priority measures 4.1. Combating corruption in civil service

As a result of corrupt activities, an illegal extraction of material and non-material benefits takes place, which ends up undermining societal interest and reducing the government’s prestige.

Therefore, the State will continue to take all necessary measures and create the conditions under which the use of official powers for personal gain will be unprofitable and impossible.

One of these most important measures will be not only declaration of civil servants’ incomes but also their expenses. In the future, such a declaration will be extended to the entire population, which will have a positive impact on compliance with the law and provision of transparency in the Civil Service system.

A further gradual increase, to the extent of the financial capacity growth of the State, in salaries and social benefits of officials are considered as a measure for reducing corruption levels in government. This task becomes more relevant in the sense that currently salaries in the public service are not sufficiently competitive in comparison with the private sector.

Incorruptibility of public officials and transparency of their activities are the basis for the success of the anti-corruption policy.

One of the factors that facilitates corruption to take place is the direct contact of an official with a citizen. The simpler and the more transparent is the procedure for obtaining public services, the lower is the level of corruption.

In this regard, a gradual transfer of a number of government functions to the non-government sector or self-regulated organisations will be undertaken.

The human factor influence will also be minimized through the wide use of modern information technologies.

As a result, the amount of public services provided in electronic format will be increased. The issue of permits will be provided in this format as well.

Provision of appropriate services in electronic format in basic sectors of social services, including education and health care, will help reduce corruption.

The state procurement system, which is among the most corrupt areas, will be modernized. It is in this field where a quarter of all corruption crime takes place.

For the pivotal improvement of the situation, such measures as assignment of a single operator, introducing automated selection of goods, improvement of acceptance procedures for implemented work and services will be required.

Procedures for delivering public services, including the customs and tax spheres, agriculture, land registrations and banking will be automated to the maximum possible level.

The list of public services provided to citizens through the one-stop-shops (PSC) will also be expanded.

In general, transparency is a key factor in tackling corruption; therefore improvements will be carried out on a regular and systematic basis including monitoring of the quality and accessibility of public service delivery.

4.2. Introduction of the Institute of Public Control

An effective mechanism for prevention of corruption is a public

control.

Introduction of such a control mechanism requires activation of not only a civil society but also of the appropriate legal regulations.

Adoption of the Law "On Public Control" would enable the creation of an integrated system of public control by securing the basic rules of its organization and implementation for the first time in Kazakhstan.

This type of law is intended to play an important role in further development of civil society, the institutions of which assist in strengthening the prestige of the state and improving the quality of activities of state apparatus.

A legal basis will be established for holding public hearings on issues regarding the rights and interests of citizens, for public examination of state bodies’ decisions, for the reports of public organisations heads in front of their stakeholders and for citizen’s participation in activities of joint/collective bodies.

The law will promote the proper solution of anti-corruption problems and other social issues of the society and the State.

It should be noted that the public control should be clearly distinguished from the control functions of the state in accordance with the Constitution requirements.

The Law on "Access to Public Information" should become another instrument to ensure transparency of the state apparatus, which will secure the rights of public information consumers, and the procedure for its obtaining, tracking and use.

Free access to public information will eliminate the need for unnecessary contacts with public officials.

The most important factor in the successful tackling of corruption is the opportunity for citizens to participate directly in solving local-scale issues.

The adoption of a law providing the wider empowerment of local self-governments will facilitate this process.

The public should have the opportunity to be engaged in monitoring and controlling the use of funds of local-self government budget programmes.

4.3. Anti-corruption in quasi-public and private sectors

According to the data provided by international organizations, menace of corruption in quasi-public and private sectors is fully comparable with the scope of menace of corruption in public sectors.

In quasi-public sectors with budgets often exceeding the amount of public procurement, the problem of corruption seems not to be so acute. However, the current situation is characterised by lack of transparency in this sector. Therefore, institutional and legal mechanisms are needed in order to ensure accountability, control and transparency of the decision-making procedures in this sector.

Kazakhstan’s joining the ranks of the 30 most developed countries of the world is possible only in case modern principles of business ethics and honest business practices are fulfilled.

The National Chamber of Entrepreneurs, whose responsibilities include protecting the interests of domestic business, should also bear its share of responsibility for transparency and incorruptibility and take measures to combat corruption in the corporate sector.

The first step towards this direction has already taken – an Anti-corruption Charter for Business has been designed. It proclaims the basic principles and ideas of corruption-free private enterprises in Kazakhstan.

It is also necessary to adopt a number of other anti-corruption measures in various spheres of financial and economic activities.

Also, measures to create conditions to ensure transparency in the provision of services to the citizens by quasi-private sector organisations shall be taken.

This includes the increased use of electronic technologies in the banking sector, establishment of clear criteria for determining tariff rates of natural monopolies, reduction of the state's participation in the construction industry and other sectors of the economy.

At the same time, combating corruption in the private sector should be conducted in the way that it is not detrimental to the investment climate and create risks for entrepreneurs.

4.4. Prevention of corruption in judicial and law enforcement authorities

The efficiency of the anti-corruption policy of the State primarily depends on the supremacy of the law system of which the irreproachable system of justice is the basic core.

In order to enhance the court system’s credibility and to improve the quality of the course of justice, measures aimed at eliminating corruption in judges’ activities, including strengthening of the requirements in appointing judges, will be taken.

Simplification of juridical proceedings, improvement of its operational efficiency and automation of the courts’ activity will facilitate free access to justice and enhance transparency in the court system’s activities.

Priorities of the law enforcement system should be shifted from detection of committed crimes to prevention and precaution measures.

Mechanisms of competitive selection based on meritocracy principles, which are already effective in the system of administrative Civil Service, should also be introduced to the personnel policy of law enforcement authorities.

Accreditation and validation procedures of workers will be improved; a ban on the transfer of candidates circumventing the candidates’ pool has been imposed.

Corruption may take place in the sphere of law enforcement activities when law enforcement officers come into contact with citizens.

A solution to this problem largely depends on the irreproachability of law enforcement officers, maintenance of new technologies and computerisation of respective procedures.

Only those law enforcement bodies, which are free from corruption, are capable of protecting citizens’ rights and interests of the State and society.

Public trust should become the main evaluation criteria for law enforcement activities.

4.5. Building levels of an anti-corruption culture

The set of anti-corruption measures provided by this Strategy should be accompanied by wide involvement of the public.

Only a close partnership between the state and society will allow for a successful outcome of the fight against corruption.

Without support from the public, anti-corruption measures introduced from above will produce only a partial effect.

Intolerance to corruption has to become a civic position of each Kazakhstani; honesty and integrity should be the standards of behaviour.

It is impossible to reach the desired results without the existence of an anti-corruption culture of citizens, strong resistance to corruption, and its public condemnation. Every Kazakhstani, every family should understand the fight against corruption as the business of the whole society.

An essential part in developing an anti-corruption culture is working with the younger generation. Only the introduction of anti-corruption standards at a young age will allow for the eradication of this social blemish.

It is important to bring up individuals from childhood in the spirit of Kazakhstani patriotism and exclusion of corruption.

Anti-corruption education courses should be provided at all educational institutions, state authorities, and the civic society.

Considering its magnitude, education should be done on a professional basis, using specialists of different sectors, who can clearly and knowledgeably present to citizens the issues related to mechanisms of public services obtainment, protection of their rights and legal interests.

Mass media are intended to create an atmosphere of public intolerance to corruption, and to contribute in developing the active civic position of Kazakhstanis, through their involvement in anti-corruption activities.

In many cases, corruption violations stem from poor legal literacy of citizens about their rights and legal interests.

It is necessary to strive for cardinal eradication of legal nihilism in the society.

The situation can be improved by undertaking a large-scale information provision campaign among the public, and through implementation of systematic and meticulous activities in order to enhance the legal culture of the public taking into consideration age, professional and other particularities.

Following the example of foreign countries, a material reward has been introduced in Kazakhstan for citizens who report corruption cases. This mechanism has demonstrated its efficiency. Due to the stand of our citizens, many corruption violations have been prevented. It is necessary to continue working in this direction.

Anti-corruption ethics and culture of the Kazakhstani society must be formed within the framework of “Mangilik el” ideology. A balanced combination of traditional spiritual values and the best international standards will allow to re-establish canons of the citizens’ good behaviour.

The anti-corruption culture of our society should be based on a conscious intolerance to corruption. Corruption should be considered as extraneous phenomenon in the national culture.

4.6. Development of international cooperation in fighting corruption.

Kazakhstan will widen and improve international cooperation on anti-corruption issues.

Efficient foreign-policy activities of Kazakhstan as a legitimate subject of international law, which resulted in joining the UN Convention Against Corruption and other documents in this sphere, provide active participation of our country in processes of international control of corruption.

On one side, this provides the impetuses to use the best anti-corruption practices, on the other it widens the opportunities for cooperation with foreign countries.

Our country has entered a number of agreements on the provision of mutual legal assistance, criminal extradition, and asset recovery.

Our anti-corruption policy will be also improved through cooperation with the European Union, and the use of foreign experience with due regard to national specifics and national legislation.

Special attention should be paid to off-shore companies, through which money is transferred abroad and legalized, including funds of dubious origin. Signing relevant international agreements and treaties will allow for provision of transparency of off-shore companies’ activities.

Organisation of international anti-corruption events will continue, as well as participation in reputable international organizations. Our country is going to remain a respected dialogue platform for discussing issues of transnational corruption control.

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of Strategy Implementation

The leading body in the Anticorruption Strategy realization mechanism will be an authorized body for corruption control, and implementation of the Strategy

will involve all state authorities, organizations and institutions, publicly owned companies, political parties and other public associations, as well as the civic society.

Stage-by-stage implementation of the Strategy’s provisions will be provided by the Plan of actions which will be approved by the Government in coordination with the Presidential Executive Office.

A necessary condition to achieve the Strategy goals includes monitoring and evaluation of its execution, which are subdivided into internal and external.

Internal monitoring and evaluation of execution will be held directly by the executive of activities; external will be performed by specially established monitoring group which will include representatives of concerned state authorities, society and mass media.

Openness is the main condition of monitoring and evaluation of the Anti-corruption Strategy implementation status.

Reports on implementation of corresponding events will be brought to the attention of the public in a mandatory manner in order to get external assessment and feedback.

The public’s assessment and opinion will be considered in further stages of the Strategy’s implementation.

Submission of a report for consideration by the Head of the State will be the final stage of the Anti-corruption Strategy implementation.

An Annual National report on the Strategy’s implementation will be published through mass media.

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